Muslim Dress

all about Muslim Dress

Friday, September 08, 2006

JILBAB

JILBAB

In modern day usage, jilbāb (Arabic جلباب) refers to a long, flowing, baggy overgarment worn by some Muslim women. They believe that this fulfills the Islamic demands for modesty, or hijab.
The modern jilbāb covers the entire body, except for hands, feet, face, and head. The head is then covered by a scarf or wrap. Some women will also cover the hands, feet, and face.
In Indonesia, the word jilbab is used for a headscarf rather than a long baggy overgarment (Geertz).

Qur'an and hadith
The plural of jilbāb, jalabib, is found in the Qur'an, verse 33:59 (sura Al-Ahzab). The verse in romanized Arabic and the translation of Yusuf Ali goes:
Ya ayyuha an-Nabiyy qul li azwajika wa banatika wa nisa al-mu'minin yudnina alayhinna min jalabib hinna; dhalika adna an yu'rafna fa laa yu'dhayn. Wa kana Allahu Ghafur Rahim
O Prophet! Tell thy wives and daughters, and the believing women, that they should cast their [jalabib] over their persons (when abroad): that is most convenient, that they should be known (as such) and not molested. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
The word jilbab is also found in some hadith (oral traditions later recorded). One such hadith follows:
Narrated Umm Atiyya: We were ordered to bring out our menstruating women and screened women to the religious gatherings and invocation of the Muslims on the two Eid festivals. These menstruating women were to keep away from the musalla. A woman asked, "O Messenger of Allah! What about one who does not have a jilbab?". He said, "Let her borrow the jilbab of her companion". (Sahih Bukhari, Book 8, #347)


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Tuesday, August 29, 2006

Muslim Dress

In the shadows of the Twin Towers: Muslim immigrant women's voices emerge
Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, Sept, 2004 by Maram Hallak, Kathryn Quina


"Murderer!" she was called on September 11 as she hastily walked her
little sister from school. "I act like I didn't hear it and my sister
was like, what did you do today?"


The events of September 11, 2001, are an integral part of this story. Before that date, they were seven young Muslim women students and an Arab American faculty member at a community college in lower Manhattan, next to the Twin Towers, which served as a symbolic beacon to their education. On September 11, several witnessed the planes crashing into the towers, and their horrible collapse. All were caught up in the chaos of a city under attack. In this paper, we explore their experiences and how we came to understand the shadows still cast over their lives by the Twin Towers.
This study was undertaken to learn more about the issues young Muslim women have experienced after immigrating to the United States, to examine the impact of the events of September 11, 2001, and to suggest ways to assist them in finding a comfortable place in their chosen home. College women were selected for this study because they represent a significant cohort in the future of American Muslims, the "bridge" generation from the traditional culture of their parents to the Western culture they now call home. This particular group was sampled because their lives were personally disrupted by the terrorist attacks. Additional insights come from the first author's experiences as an Arab American working with Muslim women, the psychology of immigration, and the small but interesting body of writings on the feelings and experiences of Muslim women who have immigrated to Western countries.
This project began when the first author was asked to form a support group for Muslim students in October, 2001. These young women were angry about stereotyping, afraid for their safety, and distressed by the trauma they had experienced them-selves. This group also revealed deeper issues that affected their lives: the normal push-pull of relationships, cultural clashes between family traditions and Western ways, and for some, domestic violence. In the tradition of participatory research (e.g., Fine et al., 2003), it was from the members of this support group that the idea of a more formal study emerged, and while they were not formal participants, their influences are felt throughout.
One problem is a misconception of who "Muslims" are. While most Arabic countries are predominantly Muslim and are ruled by leaders who practice the Islamic religion, 75% of the Muslims in the United States either are African-American or have immigrated from one of the many non-Arabic Islamic countries (Smith, n.d.). Furthermore, most of the Arabs living in the United States are not Muslim--those who practice a religion are most likely to be Christian (Zogby, 1990). A substantial number of Muslim immigrants in the United States, however, are refugees from countries in which politics, religion, and a patriarchal tradition have conspired to keep women powerless (Bhutto, 1996; Brooks, 1995).
Feminist activists have been concerned about Muslim women for decades; and feminist ethics lead us to a commitment to social action to change conditions that harm women and men. Thus, the over-arching goal of this paper and the work we are involved in is to better serve these women, to develop appropriate interventions where needed. However, it is important to understand what is an appropriate social action, from the standpoint of the women themselves. Furthermore, this effort is not a one-way street; we also hope that by discussing their lives, we will better understand our own culture and learn to be more tolerant of other cultures.
METHOD
Participants
Seven Muslim women students were recruited by the first author from a community college in lower Manhattan. Their ages ranged from 18 to 22 years. They came from six different countries of origin (Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Iran, Pakistan, Palestine, and Yemen). Only one was born in the United States; the rest had been in the United States from 2 to 12 years. All were single except one, who was married with one small child.
Interview Questions
The focus groups were guided by four openended questions. The first was a general introductory discussion of how they described themselves, as students and as Muslim women in the United States. This contextual question was followed by three specific research questions:
1. Do you experience internal (family and community) and external (school community, society at large) stressors because of your beliefs, dress, and religious commitments?
2. Were such issues magnified by the tragic events of September 11?
3. Where do you seek support for your needs?
Procedure
This was a qualitative study utilizing phenomenological data. Participants read and signed a consent form approved by the Institutional Review Board and answered a short set of demographic questions anonymously. Issues of confidentiality were discussed; participants were assigned a number and were asked to refer to each other by number rather than by name. They were encouraged to speak freely and in any order they wished. The interview lasted about an hour and a half. It was tape recorded and transcribed; any identifying information was removed from the transcript.

Wednesday, July 26, 2006

Everyday Muslim Dress

Muslim Dress

Muslims, male and female, are expected to dress modestly as expressed in the Qur'an:
"Say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty: that will make for greater purity for them: And Allah is well acquainted with all that they do." [24:30]
"And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof; that they should draw their veils over their bosoms ... " [24:31]
"O Prophet! Tell thy wives and thy daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks close round them. That will be better, so that they may be recognized and not annoyed. Allah (SWT) is ever Forgiving, Merciful." [33:59]
However, there are many different interpretations of what "modesty" requires. See the article on hijab for an extended discussion of modest dress.

Proper dress for prayer
Shoes are not allowed in the mosque and must be left at the door. No special clothing is required for worship. Believers are required to dress modestly, according to the customs of their community. A head covering (kufi, like a cap or turban) is considered desirable for men, and necessary by some more strict practitioners of the religion, but is not universally seen as necessary.
All Muslims wash, or perform ablutions, before prayer, called wudu. Most mosques have some facilities for washing the hands and feet before entering the mosque.

Proper dress for hajj
Men put on special pilgrim's robes when they go on hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina. These robes are two pieces of unhemmed white cloth; they are donned before the walk to Mecca. All, rich and poor, wear the same humble garments. Many pilgrims preserve their ihram carefully. It will be their shroud when they are buried.
Women usually wear plain, simple robes as well.


Special clothing for officials, sayyids, and sufis
There is no special dress for the muezzin, who calls to prayer, nor for the imam who leads prayers in the mosque and delivers a talk or sermon. Islam tends to emphasize the direct relationship of each believer to Allah rather than elaborating roles for human intermediaries.
Muslim jurists, such as ayatollahs, imams, muftis, or qadis, may wear special robes or turbans of honor, but these vary according to local custom.
Also:
Male sayyids (also spelled sayed, sayid, or said) or sharifs, descendants of the Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima and son-in-law Ali RA, especially as scholars in the Shia "clergy", often wear black turbans.
Male sufis, especially the more monastic amongst them, commonly wore a simple robe of white wool, (leading to one tradition of how their name came about, being supposedly derived from the Arabic suf or wool). Present day sufis often do not follow this tradition.
One Sufi order in present-day Turkey, the Mevlevi, wear white dresses with voluminous skirts. During their prayer services, they twirl (called Sufi whirling) so that the skirts stand out. Hence they are also known as Whirling Dervishes.

Muslim Dress

Tuesday, July 25, 2006

Muslim Dress in Quran


Muslim Dress in Quran

Hadith - Bukhari 1:148
The wives of the Prophet used to go to Al-Manasi, a vast open place (near Baqia at Medina) to answer the call of nature at night. 'Umar used to say to the Prophet "Let your wives be veiled," but Allah's Apostle did not do so. One night Sauda bint Zam'a the wife of the Prophet went out at 'Isha' time and she was a tall lady. 'Umar addressed her and said, "I have recognized you, O Sauda." He said so, as he desired eagerly that the verses of Al-Hijab (the observing of veils by the Muslim women) may be revealed. So Allah revealed the verses of "Al-Hijab" (A complete body cover excluding the eyes).

Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 7, Book 65, Hadith # 375
Narrated Anas (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) I know (about) the Hijab (the order of veiling of women) more than anybody else. Ubai bin Ka'b used to ask me about it. Allaah's Apostle became the bridegroom of Zainab bint Jahsh whom he married at Medina. After the sun had risen high in the sky, the Prophet invited the people to a meal. Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) remained sitting and some people remained sitting with him after the other guests had left. Then Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) got up and went away, and I too, followed him till he reached the door of 'Aa'ishah's room. Then he thought that the people must have left the place by then, so he returned and I also returned with him. Behold, the people were still sitting at their places. So he went back again for the second time, and I went along with him too. When we reached the door of 'Aa'ishah's room, he returned and I also returned with him to see that the people had left. Thereupon Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) hung a curtain between me and him and the Verse regarding the order for (veiling of women) Hijab was revealed.

33:53 O ye who Believe! enter not the Prophet's houses until leave is given you for a meal (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation: but when ye are invited enter; and when ye have taken your meal disperse without seeking familiar talk. Such (behavior) annoys the Prophet: He is ashamed to dismiss you but Allah is not ashamed (to tell you) the truth. And when ye ask (his ladies) for anything ye want ask them from before a* screen*: that makes for greater purity for your hearts and for theirs. Nor is it right for you that ye should annoy Allah's Apostle or that ye should marry his widows after him at any time. Truly such a thing is in Allah's sight an enormity.

Transliteration Ya_ ay yuhal lazina a_manu_ la_ tadhulu_ buyu_tan nabiy yi il la_ ay yuzana lakum ila_ taa_min gaira na_zirina ina_hu wa la_kin iza_ duitum fadhulu_ fa iza_ taimtum fantasiru_ wa la_ mustanisina lihadis in na za_likum ka_na yuzin nabiy ya fayastahyi minkum wal la_hu la_ yastahyi minal haq wa iza_ sa al tumu_hun na mata_ an fas alu_hun na miw wara_ I* hija_b* za_likum atharu liqulu_bikum wa qulu_bihin wa ma_ ka_na lakum an tuzu_ rasu_lal la_hi wala_ an tankihu_ azwa_jahu_ min badihi abadan in na za_likum ka_na indal la_hi azima_



Hijab[complete body covering with the exclsuion of eyes ] was revealed:For all Women].

33:59 O prophet! tell thy wives and daughters and the believing women that they should cast their outer garments [Jalabeeb]over their persons (when abroad): that is most convenient that they should be known (as such) and not molested: and Allah is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful.

* Jalabeeb (plural of Jalbaab), a loose outer garment that covers all a woman's body. Covers head, face,one or both eyes, to be known that she is a free woman and so not to exposed to any harm.

What is the defintion of the word "jilbab" in Arabic?
The definitive dictionary of classical Arabic, Lisan al-Arab by ibn al-Mandhur, provides the following definition, "The jilbab is the outergarment, mantle, or cloak. It is derived from the word tajalbaba, which means to clothe. Jilbab is the outer sheet or covering which a woman wraps around her ON TOP OF HER GARMENTS to cover herself from head to toe. It hides her body completely" (Lisan al-Arab, volume 7, page 273)

Further another verse was revealed about veiling which explained wearing of khimar in the right way.

Surah 24:An-Nur, Verse 30 Say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty: that will make for greater purity for them: and Allah is well acquainted with all that they do.

And Surah 24:An-Nur, Verse31 And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily-Eye,bangles,bracelets etc) appear thereof; that they should draw their *veils *over their *bosoms* and not display their beauty except to their husbands their fathers their husbands' fathers their sons their husbands' sons their brothers or their brothers' sons or their sisters' sons or their women or the slaves whom their right hands possess or male servants free of physical needs or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex; and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments. And O ye Believers! turn ye all together towards Allah that ye may attain Bliss.

Now taking selective part of the verse which is needed for explanation:
And Say to the believing women to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden things), and protect their private parts (from illegal sexual acts) and not to show off their adornment except only that which is apparent (Eyes,bangles,bracelets etc), and to draw their *veils* all over Juyubihinna (bosoms) .....................

The Arabic text is, "Wa qul li al-muminat yaghdudna min absarihinna wa yahfazna furujahunna wa laa yubdina zenatahunna illa maa zahara min haa wal-yadribna bi *khumurihinna* alaa "*juyub hinna*".

This is translated as, "And say to the faithful women to lower their gazes, and to guard their private parts, and not to display their adornment except what is apparent of it, and to extend[draw] their khumur to cover their juyub". First, the word "khumur"plural of khimar[It is a piece of cloth which is used by a woman to cover her head].

In this verse Allah subhanawatala mentions khimaar for the first time,before this verse when surah Ahzab's verse was revealed with hijab commandment,Jalabeeb[jilbab] is the word mentioned.Jalabeeb (plural of Jalbaab), a loose outer garment that covers all a woman's body.

Though Jalabeeb fulfills the criteria of veiling yet in surah Nur [24] further clarification is explained.
Because women wore long outer garment[jalabeeb] along with khimaar[head scarf].Even though khimar was'nt mentioned in surah Ahzab's verse.Their khimar didnt covered bosom so Allah commanded them to extend khimar to bosom,while doing so it has to be pulled from the head ,which will fall of face,then neck then bosom.And jalabeb falls on rest of the body from sholders to feet.

Hence a complete covering including face[excluding eyes].Prophets wives were commanded first to cover completely,they always used khimar till the end of their lives,and it always covered their faces along with bodies.

Sunan of Abu-DawoodHadith 1829 Narrated byAisha, Ummul Mu'minin
Riders would pass us when we accompanied the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) while we were in the sacred state (wearing ihram). When they came by us, one of us would let down her outer garment[Jilbab] from her head over her face, and when they had passed on, we would uncover our faces.

*Note:While one cannot deny the support of Hadith that indicate that the Prophet's wives wore khimar, one must realize that they also covered their faces at all times in the presence of non-mahram men. Here in the state of Ihram they cover temporarily with Jilbab,in normal circumstanes they used khimaar to cover faces,neck,bosom as taught in suran nur 24 verse 31.This is a proof that believeing women also followed suit.

Another clarification:The word "juyub". This is the plural of the word "jayb", which means "bosom". The word is used in Arabic to refer to the breastpocket of a shirt.

For cross reference see Surah al-Qasas ayah 32 describes Moses as putting his hand in his "jayb", and this means his breast, not his "body, face, neck and bosom" so "juyub" cannot be translated as such as such but bosom only.
Muslim Dress

Tuesday, July 18, 2006

Muslim Dress

Muslim Dress

As Moslems we should follow the rules in Quran and Hadith. There is no any reason that can be put forward to try not to do what we are to do. Moslems have their own uniqueness in every single detail of their lives.

The way they worship, the way they interact, the way they live, the way they eat and even the way they dress. Allah and His Messenger have ordered Moslem women and men to dress according to Quran and Hadith.

“Say (O Muhammad, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him): ‘Who has forbidden the adornment with clothes given by Allah, which He has produced for His slaves, and the good provisions?’ Say: ‘They are, in the life of this world, for those who believe, (and) exclusively for them (believers) on the Day of Resurrection.’ Thus We explain the Ayah in detail for people who have knowledge.” (Surah Al-A’raf: 32)

There are particular rules of woman clothes and man clothes, all of which must be fulfilled. Under no circumstances should we ignore the rules of Quran and Hadith.
Woman clothes In Islam women may not reveal their body except their faces and palms; of course this condition doesn’t prevail for “Dhu-Mahram” (A man, whom a woman can never marry because of close relationship e.g. a brother, a father, a grand father, an uncle; or her own husband).

Women can of course follow the latest fashion provided that it is not against the rules of Moslem woman clothes. Fortunately, the advance of fashion lately is also in favor of Moslem woman clothes. Let’s say, in Indonesia which has the largest Moslem population for instance; some outstanding Moslem woman clothes designers such as, Ida Royani, Ida Leman, Anne, Sessa, Ranti, Dandi Burhan etc. always compete each other by launching their new products every year to grab the market, though this fact is not followed by the awareness of all Moslem women in Indonesia, this phenomenon cannot successfully prompt all Moslem women to realize their obligation.

On the other hand, this obligation is not just a matter that can be neglected; there are always consequences for leaving our duties to Allah since wearing Moslem veil or head cover is instructed in Quran and Hadith. It is not merely following the latest style. We are to know the purpose of wearing Moslem clothes.

“And tell the believing women to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden things), and protect their private parts (from illegal sexual acts) and not to show off their adornment (it means the place where the adornment is put such as, necklace on the neck, earrings on the ear) except only that which is apparent (like their faces and palms) and to draw their veils all over their bodies, necks and bosoms and not to reveal their adornment except to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husband’s fathers, or their sons, or their husband’s sons, or their brothers or their brother’s sons, or their sister’s sons, or their (Moslem) women (i.e. their sisters in Islam), or the (female) slaves whom their right hands possess, or old male servants who lack vigor, or small children who have no sense of feminine sex. And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment. And all of you beg Allah to forgive you all, O believers, that you may be successful.” (Surah An-Nur: 31)

When this verse was revealed the Anshor women immediately followed the order up. They tore their cloths to be worn as head covers.
Narrated Aishah, may Allah be please to her.
She said; “May Allah bestow His Mercy on Anshar women. When Allah revealed: ‘And to draw their veils all over their bodies, necks and bosoms’ – they tore their cloths and covered their heads with those torn cloths.” (Hadith Bukhory, Vol. 6)
Narrated Safiyyah bint Shaibah: “Aishah used to say: ‘When the verse: “And to draw their veils all over their bodies, necks and bosoms” (V.24:31) was revealed, (the ladies) cut their waist sheets at the edges and covered their heads with those cut pieces of cloth.’” (Hadith Bukhory, Vol. 6)

The order to wear Moslem woman clothes is not groundless. In fact, if a woman wearing the proportional Moslem clothes, she will be more respected and safe than she who does not. Because, a woman body is wholly “aurat” (The part of the body which is illegal to expose to others). We can see that mostly rapes are commited due to the allure of the victims themselves. If they conduct and dress accordingly, based upon Quran and Hadith, God Willing, they will be more secured.

Allah’s Messenger, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said: “A woman is entirely “aurot”, when she goes out of her house the devil will beautify her.” (Hadith At-Tirmidzi)

Being beautified by the devil, every male who sees her will be tempted to attract her sexually. It doesn’t really matter if the beholder is a good person, how about if the beholder is a rapper? The dress must be paid attention as well. A Moslem woman’s dress should be loose that it cannot reveal or reflect her body.

The dress must reach her thighs under her bottom; the sleeves must reach her writs; the pants must be loose and lower than her ankles.
Narrated Aishah; “One day Asma’ bint Abi Bakr entered Allah’s Messenger’s house while she was wearing thin clothes. Then the Prophet, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, turned his face, saying; ‘A woman, when she has reached her period (maturity) is not proper if her body is seen except this one and this one as he pointed to his face and palms.’

” (Hadith Abu Dawud) Narrated Alqomah bin Abi Alqomah from his mother; “Once Hafsoh bint Abd-Ar-Rahman entered Aisah’s house (the wife of the Prophet, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). She was wearing a thin head cover, then Aishah tore a thick cloth and dressed her with that thick cloth (head cover).” (Hadith Muatho’)

Allah and His Messenger, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, would not instruct us to do anything if it doesn’t have consequences. Basically, as Moslem people, we are to follow everything mentioned in Quran and Hadith without arguing. Only by the way they look, we can easily distinguish between the right ones and the wrong ones, the believers and the disbelievers. Of course the look is not everything; we still also have to implement all instructions in Quran and Hadith.

Now the question is, what is the consequence of not wearing head covers? “These are the limits set by Allah and whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger will be admitted to Gardens under which rivers flow, to abide therein, and that will be the great success.

” (Surah An-Nisa’: 13) “And whosoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger and transgresses His limits, He will cast him into the Fire, to abide therein; and he shall have a disgraceful torment.”

(Surah An-Nisa’: 14) Allah’s Messenger said: “There are two kinds of the dwellers of the Hell-Fire, two of which I have yet to see i.e. a people who have whips as big as cow’s tails, by which those people beat men, and women who wear thin or tight clothes and invite people to deviate and make affairs. Their heads are like hump’s camels and slanting. They will not enter Paradise and find a smell of Paradise while a smile of Paradise can be found in this particular journey and this particular journey (a 100 year distance journey).”

(Hadith Muslim) If someone can not smell the Paradise in a 100 year distance journey, there will be no chance for him/her to enter the Paradise. Narrated Ibn Abbas: “Surely the Prophet, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, curse women who resemble men, and he curse men who resemble women.” (Hadith Abu Dawud Vol. 4)

The resemblance here is in the way they look e.g. their clothes that are tight and don’t cover their entire bodies except faces and palms. Women wearing short and t-shirts are the worst of all. So fear Allah by following what He has ordered you.

The fashion should follow the rules not the rules follow the fashion! Men clothes Unlike women, men may reveal their hairs and their body except that which is from their belly button till knees. To be Moslem-like, men don’t have to wear long flowing robs and turbans like in Saudi Arabia, hats and sarongs like worn by the greatest Islamic group in Indonesia, or scull-caps like Jews’. But it has to be based on Quran and Hadith, it must not be against the rules.

Even though one wears jeans and t-shirts, coats or jackets providing it is based on that which is written in Quran and Hadith, his dress will be considered as Moslem dress, as believer’s dress.

Allah’s Messenger, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said: “Eat and drink and dress and give charity without wasting and arrogant.” (Hadith Bukhory) Narrated Ibn Umar: Allah’s Messenger, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said: “Whoever lowers his clothes (below his ankles) arrogantly (not obeying the rules of Quran and Hadith is considered arrogant), Allah will not look at him on the Day of Judgment.”

Abu Bakr said: “O Allah’s Messenger, one side of my clothes covers my ankle except I keep taking care of it (draw it above ankle) how about it?” (The length of his clothes actually fitted him above his ankles but because his clothes were a little bit bigger in size, one side of his clothes occasionally went down). Then Allah’s Messenger said: “You are not among those who do it intentionally and arrogantly.” (Hadith Bukhory)

So the pants (clothes) of men should above the ankles. According to the above Hadith, if we have cut our pants above our ankles then by accident one side of our pants goes down, it is likely because we are fasting and our waist is skinnier, it is not considered against the rules. But if one doesn’t cut his pants above his ankle although he might say; “No, I am not arrogant, I wear these pants just the way it is, I don’t mean it to be arrogant.” It is considered arrogant and against the rules of Allah and His Messenger.

Arrogant here means not willing or pleased to follow that which Allah and His Messenger ruled. So there are no excuses! Even the Prophet, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, doesn’t only regard it arrogant. But he said that the one who wore clothes or pants lower than his ankles, he would go to the Hell-Fire.

Narrated Abi Huraira: Allah’s Messenger, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said: “Whatever of clothes is lower than ankles, then he will be in the Hell-Fire.” (Hadith Bukhory)

Narrated Salim bin Abdullah from Abdullah; Allah’s Messenger, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said: “A man once lowered his clothes below his ankles, then he was buried in the earth (by angles), then he kept struggling to get free until the Day of Judgment.” (Hadith Bukhory) Not only will he go to the Hell-Fire, but also his worship in the world will be useless.

Because once you don’t follow the regulations in Islamic religion, you don’t deserve to be called as a good Moslem in spite of your claim to be a Moslem. Your prayers will not be accepted by Allah, then if your prayers are not accepted what are you expecting? Nothing!

Narrated Abi Huraira: “One day a man who lowered his pants below his ankles was taking a prayer. Then Allah’s Messenger, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said to him; ‘Go and take a ritual washing again!’ Then he went and took another ritual ablution and came back. Then the Prophet said again; ‘Go and take a ritual ablution.’ Then another man asked him; ‘O Allah’s Messenger, why did you keep telling him to take another ritual washing?’ The Prophet was just silent then he said; ‘Surely he prayed while he lowered his pants below his ankles, and surely Allah doesn’t accept the prayer of someone who lowers his pants below his ankles.’” (Hadith Abu Dawud)

Many have wronged in drawing the conclusion of the above Hadith, so they only roll up their pants above their ankles when they pray and the rest, they just let it go down lower the ankles. Should they really recite the Hadith properly they will find that it is totally wrong. They prefer maintaining the look to following the rules for they think if they cut their pants above the ankles they will look so funny or stupid. On the contrary, they are the fools since they will be cast into the Hell-Fire.

Narrated Abi Sa’id: Allah’s Messenger, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said: “The clothes of Moslems are only until a half of calves, but it is not sin or there is no sin for that which are between a half of calves and ankles, whatever of clothes lower than ankles he will be in the Hell-Fire. Whosoever lowers his clothes below his ankles arrogantly (intentionally or not willing to follow the rules of Islamic religion), Allah will have no need to see him.”

(Hadith Abu Dawud) Narrated Abi Dzar: Allah’s Messenger, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said: “There are three groups to which Allah doesn’t want to talk on the Day of Resurrection and Allah doesn’t sanctify them and they will get a painful chastisement.” Then I said: “Who are those losers O Allah’s Messenger?” Then Allah’s Messenger reiterated it thrice.

Then Allah’s Messenger said: “They are those who lower their clothes (pants) below their ankles, and those who dig their old favors up, and those who offer their merchandise by stating a false oath or faithless oath.” (Hadith Abu Dawud)

So, what are you expecting if Allah doesn’t want to talk to you on the Day of Resurrection? Are you expecting to enter the Paradise? Then you are expecting the unrealistic expectations. If you still persist in lowering your pants or clothes below your ankles then you never learnt. And none so stupid as those who will not learn.

Muslim Dress

thank's to:
http://www.myquran.com
http://www.moslemdress.blogspot.com
http://www.moslemclothes.blogspot.com

Monday, July 17, 2006

Muslim Women's Dress

Muslim Women's Dress in Accordance with the Qur'an and Sunnah
based on Hijabul Mar'atil Muslimah by Ash-Sheik Muhammad Nassirud-Deen Al- Albani

Translated and Abridged by Mahmoud MuradPraise be to Allah and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger and upon his honorable companions and those who have followed his example with piety.

This paper has been prepared in response to a deterioration in the condition of Muslim women of this day and age, which is a consequence of the misconception that how a woman dresses is of little importance, as long as she performs her obligatory acts of worship. This misconception is not restricted to Muslim women in the West, but unfortunately is shared by many of their sisters in the East.

In the Glorious Qur'an we are told:
"And let there arise out of you a nation inviting to what is good, enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong. Those are the ones who are successful". Qur'an 3:104

Abu S'aed al-Khudri relates that he heard the Prophet (saws) say:
"He of you who sees something wrong should correct it with his hand; if he is unable to do that he should condemn it with his tongue; if he is unable to do that he should at least resent it in his heart, and this is the lowest degree of faith"

.MuslimIt is clear that we must draw the attention of our Muslim sisters to the importance of wearing Islamic dress. This is not imposed upon us by the mere opinion of a scholar or a sheik. It is a Divine Command, and is necessarily in the best interest of the society of every age and place. In this we stand opposed to the opinion of some "modernists", who maintain that those living in a western society are justified in adapting to its norms and morals.We believe that our religion is that which has been transmitted to us through the Prophet Mohammed (saws), his companions and our pious predecessors.

A careful study of relevant Qur'anic ayat (verses) and Hadith (Prophetic traditions), along with the works of our pious predecessors, will reveal a strict emphasis on the need for women to observe modesty in their dress when they appear in public, by covering all of their bodies and any ornaments or other means of beautification they might wear.

Allah the Exalted says in Surat an-Noor, ayah 31:
" And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and guard their private parts and not show of their adornment except only that which is apparent, and draw their veils over their (necks and) bosoms and not reveal their adornment except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands' fathers, their sons, their husbands' sons, their brothers, or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, or their slaves, or male servants who lack vigor, or small children who have no knowledge of women's private parts. And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment. And turn you all to Allah in repentance, O believers, that you may be successful".

And He says in Surat al-Ahzab, ayah 59:
" Oh Prophet, tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their outer garments close around them. That will be better, that they may be known and so not be bothered. And Allah is of-forgiving, most merciful".

From these two ayat of the Noble Qur'an and from the authentic sources of guidance provided for us, we can derive the following principles of proper dress and adornment for Muslim women:1. The outer garment worn in public must cover all of the body except the face and hands.

Surat an-Noor, ayah 31 (quoted above) contains a clear command that a woman's natural beauty and her adornment are to be concealed from strangers, except that which might show unintentionally (i.e. parts of the dress or ornaments) or which show as a matter of course because it is not prohibited that they be shown (i.e. the face and the hands).

Abu Dawud narrated that 'A'ishah said:
Asma came to see the Messenger of Allah (saws). She was wearing a thin dress; the Prophet (saws) turned away from her and said to her: "O Asma, once a woman reaches the age of puberty no part of her body should be uncovered except her face and hands."

It should be noted that the Arabic word khumur (plural of khimaar) which has been translated above in the ayah from Surat an-Noor as veils, means head covers, not face veils, as may mistakenly be supposed. It refers to a cloth which covers all of the hair. Furthermore, the word juyoob (plural of jaib), also found in the ayah of Surat an-Noor, refers not only to the bosom, as is commonly thought, but also to the neck.

Qurtubi, an eminent mufassir (Qur'an commentator), stated:Women in those days used to cover their heads with the khimaar, throwing its ends on their backs. This left the neck and the upper part of the chest bare, along with the ears, in the manner of the Christians. Then Allah commanded them to cover those parts with the khimaar."And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment.

"Women in the time of the Prophet (saws) used to wear anklets, which they could employ to attract attention by stamping their feet, making the anklets tinkle together. This practice was now forbidden, but even more important for us, these words make it absolutely clear that the legs and ankles are to be covered.

Bin 'Umar narrated:
Let them lower their gaze Prophet (saws) said: "On the Day of Judgment Allah will not look upon one who trails his garment along out of pride."
Um Salamah then asked: "What should women do with their garments?" The Prophet (saws) said: "They may lower them a hand span." She said: "Their feet would still be uncovered."

The Prophet (saws) said: then lower them a forearm's length, but no more."TirmithiThe ayah from Surat an-Noor quoted above gives us specific and detailed information about what a Muslim woman should be sure to cover when she is in the company of strangers, and it gives a detailed list of those with whom she is permitted to be less inhibited.

The ayah quoted from Surat al-Ahzab further directs Muslim women to put some outer garment over their clothes, and to draw it close around them.

Abu Dawud related that after this ayah was revealed the women of the Ansar appeared like crows (because of the black cloaks which they wore).Some outer garment, whether a cloak or a coat, must be worn by a Muslim woman when she is in public, and even when she is in her own house or that of a close relative, if she is in the presence of strangers.It was mentioned above that the face need not be covered. If, however, the woman is wearing make-up, she should cover her face, since the make-up is adornment beyond what is permitted.Similarly, she should cover her hands if she is wearing nail polish or some other decoration or ornament.

Furthermore, although it is permissible to leave the face uncovered in the presence of strangers, it is praiseworthy to cover it, as that was the practice of the wives of the Prophet (saws) according to authentic Hadith.2. The outer garment must not be decorative itself or a means of beautification.When Allah commands women not to reveal their beauty, He means both the natural beauty, with which He has endowed them, and all means which they might employ to enhance that beauty.

Clearly, the garment which is used to screen the woman's beauty and her adornment from public view should not itself be a thing of beauty.Fudalah Ibn 'Ubaid reported that the Prophet (saws) said:There are three people that you should not concern yourself about:
- a man who parted from the Jama'ah and disobeyed his imam and died in that state;
- a slave who ran away from his master and died without returning;
- a woman whose husband departed from her after providing for her worldly needs and who then beautified (tabarrajat) herself in his absence.

Do not worry about any of them." AhmadThe word tabarraja means not only to beautify oneself, or to make oneself pretty, but also to display oneself, to play up one's charms for the purpose of exciting desire. Imam Adh-Dhahabi said in his book Kitaab al-Kabaair (The Book of the Great Sins): "Of the deeds woman is cursed for are displaying the ornaments which she is wearing, wearing perfume when going out, and wearing colorful clothes and silky short cloaks."The verb tabarraja includes all of these actions. Tabarruj is so abhorrent that it is associated with shirk, fornication, stealing, and other sins.

'Abdullah ibn 'Umar said:A woman came to the Messenger of Allah (saws) to give her pledge for Islam. He said: "I accept your pledge that you will not associate partners with Allah, nor steal, nor fornicate, nor kill your child, nor commit a sin between your arms and legs, nor wail over the dead, nor beautify and display yourself (tatabarraji) after the fashion of the pre-Islamic days."

Ahmad3. The outer garment must be thick and opaque so as to conceal the clothes worn under it, and loose so as to conceal the woman's form.Proper covering cannot be achieved by wearing tight or transparent apparel.The Prophet (saws) said:"There will be, in the last days of my Ummah (nation), women who are dressed and undressed. Curse them: they are accursed.

"Al-TabaraniAbu Hurairah related that the Prophet (saws) referred to:...women who are naked even though they are wearing clothes, go astray and make others go astray, and they will not enter paradise nor smell its fragrance, although it can be smelled from afar.At TabaraniThe "dressed and yet undressed" women are those who wear transparent or very tight clothes, or clothes which are cut in such a way that they expose the body. Such clothes reveal more than they conceal.

The Prophet (saws) said:Belief and the sense of shame are tied together; if one is lost the other is lost."Al-Hakim,It should be noted that a woman should wear a loose over-garment for offering prayer. It should cover her whole body (as far as going out) and should be such that it conceals the shape of her arms and legs, as well as that of the rest of her body.4. Muslim women are not to wear perfume in public.

Abu Musa narrated that the Prophet (saws) said:Any woman who wears perfume and passes by some people who smell her perfume is like one who commits fornication.

Abu Hurairah said that:A woman passed by him smelling strongly of scent. He called to her: "O slave of the powerful, are you going to the mosque?" She said that she was. He said: "Go back and wash it off.

I heard the Messenger of Allah (saws) say: 'Any woman who goes to the mosque wearing perfume will not have her prayer accepted by Allah; first she should go back home and have a bath [to wash it off].'"It is inappropriate for a woman to wear perfume in the mosque, where people are attending to the worship of Allah (swt); how much more inappropriate it is that she should wear scent elsewhere, where people are more liable to distraction. Scent attracts attention to a woman and may thereby stimulate sexual desires; this is improper in the marketplace and mosque.

The clothes of Muslim women should not resemble men's clothes.Abu Hurairah said that:The Messenger of Allah (saws) cursed the man who wears women's clothes and the woman who wears men's clothes.

Ibn Umar said that he heard the Messenger of Allah (saws) say:He is not of us who imitates women nor is he of us who imitates men."Al HakimAbdullah Ibn Umar reported that the Prophet (saws) said:Three people will not enter paradise, and Allah will not look at them on the day of Judgment:
- the one who is disobedient to his parents,
- the woman who imitates men and
- the ad-dayooth.

AhmadAd-dayooth is the man who permits women for whom he is responsible to engage in illicit sexual relations, or to display their beauty to strange men, thereby stimulating their sexual desires.

The clothes of Muslim women should not resemble those of the disbelievers.In Surat al-Hadeed, ayah 16 we are told:Has not the time come for those who believe to submit their hearts to Allah's reminder and to that which has been revealed of the truth, and not become as those who received the scriptures before and for whom the term was prolonged so their hearts grew hard? And many of them are rebellious transgressors.

Those who refuse to submit to Allah's commands are rebels against Him, and they are permitted to continue in their rebellion until their hearts become hard.The ayah and Hadeeth quoted above serve as a double warning to us: we must take care to heed Allah's commands, revealed to us through the Qur'an and the Sunnah of His Messenger (saws), lest we suffer the fate of the recipients of previous revelations; we should also shun the way of life of any believing people.

If we adopt what is theirs, we partake also of the quality of their hearts.We pray to Allah to safeguard us from that, lest we become like them.Given the condition of the disbeliever's' hearts, it is not surprising to find that much of their clothing, particularly that of women, is unsuitable for Muslims. It is designed to be attractive in itself and to enhance and attract attention to women's natural beauty.

The clothing of Muslim women should not be ostentatious.Ibn Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah (saws) said:He who dresses for ostentation in this world, Allah will dress him in a dress of humiliation on the Day of Judgment and set it on fire.

Abu DawudBy following the seven principles above, In'sh Allah a woman will satisfy all the necessary requirements for proper Islamic dress. It should be noted that some of these principles also apply to men's dress, and clearly some would apply not only to what a woman wears in public, but also to what she wears in the privacy of her own home or in the homes of he relatives or her Muslim sisters.

There are, however, some additional prohibitions regarding personal appearance of which our Muslim sisters should be aware. These prohibitions have to do with changes made to the appearance which are regarded as unacceptable alterations to Allah's creation, namely wearing wigs, plucking facial hair, filing teeth and getting tattoos.

Asma related that:A woman asked the Prophet (saws):"Messenger of Allah, my daughter had smallpox, and as a result her hair fall out. She has recently been married; can I get her a wig?" He answered: " Allah has cursed the maker and wearer of a wig."

Abdullah said that Allah (swt) has cursed tattooers and those who are tattooed, and those women who have their teeth filed for beauty and those who have their hair plucked and thus alter Allah's creation.A woman asked him: "What is all this?" He replied: "Should I not curse one whom Allah's Messenger has cursed? And it is in the Book of Allah."

She said: I read the Qur'an from cover to cover but did not find that in it. "He said: If you had read it thoroughly you would have found it. Allah says "Whatever Allah's Messenger gives you, take it, and whatever he has forbidden, refrain from it Qur'an 69: 7 (Muslim),This Hadeeth is particularly significant for us, because it not only informs us of something which the Prophet (saws) found hateful, it also makes it perfectly clear that, in matters of religion, the commands of the Prophet (saws) are as binding on us as the commands of Allah (swt).

In obeying Allah and his Messenger (saws) we can hope to be of those who are successful, tasting of the fruits of Paradise. If however, we should disobey Allah (swt) and do things prohibited by Him (and we seek refuge with him from that) then we will taste His wrath; in the case of a woman who does something forbidden by Allah (swt) or his Messenger (saws), she and her husband or guardian who permitted her to do the forbidden thing are cursed by Allah (swt).

We are advised in the Qur'an to:".....ward off from yourselves and your families a fire whereof the fuel is men and stones..."Qur'an 66:6.

The Prophet (saws) said:All of you are guardians. The man is a guardian of and is responsible for his womenfolk on the day of Judgment.May Allah (swt) open our hearts to guidance, strengthen us that we may be obedient to Him and His Messenger (saws) and save us from the punishment of hell fire.Allah is most Knowledgeable and all praise belongs to Allah, the Lord of the worlds.

Zeenah means literally adornment, but it should be understood in this context as referring to both that with which women are adorned by Allah (i.e. the features of their natural beauty) and that with which they adorn themselves (i.e. their ornaments, make-up, etc.).Since nail polish prevents the water of wudu from reaching the nails, its use should really be altogether discouraged.

Muslim Dress

Friday, July 14, 2006

Three Rules for Muslim women Dress Code in Islam

THREE RULES FOR MUSLIM WOMEN DRESS CODE IN ISLAM

FIRST RULE : THE BEST GARMENT

[7:26] "O children of Adam, we have provided you with garments to cover your bodies, as well as for luxury. But the best garment is the garment of righteousness. These are some of GOD's signs, that they may take heed."

This is the BASIC rule of DRESS CODE in the Quran.
This is the first rule in WOMEN DRESS CODE in Islam (Submission). What is inside your heart is more important for God that the dress you wear.

SECOND RULE : COVER YOUR BOSOMS

The second rule can be found in 24:31.
Here God orders the women to cover their bosoms whenever they dress up. First, let us review some crucial words that are always mentioned with this topic, namely "Hijab" and "Khimar"
THE WORD "HIJAB" in the QURAN

"Hijab" is the term used by many Muslims women to describe their head cover that may or may not include covering their face except their eyes, and sometimes covering also one eye.
The Arabic word "Hijab" can be translated into veil or yashmak. Other meanings for the word "Hijab" include, screen, cover(ing), mantle, curtain, drapes, partition, division, divider.
Can we find the word "Hijab" in the Quran??

The word "Hijab" appeared in the Quran 7 times, five of them as "Hijab" and two times as "Hijaban," these are 7:46, 33:53, 38:32, 41:5, 42:51, 17:45 & 19:17.

None of these "Hijab" words are used in the Quran in reference to what the traditional Muslims call today (Hijab) as a dress code for the Muslim woman.

Hijab as it appears in the Quran has nothing to do with the Muslim Women dress code.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:

While many Muslims call "Hijab", an Islamic dress code, they completely ignore the fact that, Hijab as a dress code has nothing to do with Islam and nothing to do with QURAN.

In reality "Hijab" is an old pre-Jewish tradition that infiltrated into the hadith books like many innovations that contaminated Islam through alleged Hadith and Sunna.

The traditional Arabs, of all religions, Jews, Christians and Muslims used to wear "Hijab," not because of Islam, but because of tradition. In certain areas of the world, men are the ones who wear the hijab while in others the women do.

THE WORD "KHIMAR" in the QURAN:

"Khimar" is an Arabic word that can be found in the Quran in 24:31 It is the word that the interpreters or translators use to claim that head cover is in the Quran.
"Khimar" means, cover, any cover, a curtain is a Khimar, a dress is a Khimar, a table cloth that covers the top of a table is a Khimar, a blanket is a Khimar..etc.
Most of the translators, obviously influenced by Hadith (fabrications) translate the word as VEIL or head cover, and thus mislead most people to believe that this verse is advocating the covering of the head.

In 24:31 God is asking the women to use their cover (khimar)( being a dress, a coat, a shawl, a shirt, a blouse, a tie, a scarf . . . etc.) to cover their bosoms, not their heads or their hairs.
If God so willed to order the women to cover their heads or their hair, nothing would have prevented Him from doing so.
GOD does not run out of words. GOD does not forget. Those who see the head cover in this verse lost their focus of the verse.
The verse is ordering the women to be sure to cover their upper chest. The verse does NOT order the women to cover their heads or hair.
Even if you accept their interpretation of the word Khimar to mean head cover, the verse is not ordering the women to cover their head but to cover the opening of the chest in their dress. If God wills, He would have given the order clear, cover your heads, but He did NOT.
God does not wait for a Scholar to put the correct words for Him!

THIRD RULE : LENGTHEN YOUR GARMENTS

The first regulation of DRESS CODE for Muslim women is in 7:26, the second is in 24:31 and the third is in 33:59

"O prophet, tell your wives, your daughters, and the wives of the believers that they shall LENGTHEN their garments. Thus, they will be recognized and avoid being insulted. God is Forgiver, Most Merciful." 33:59

In 33:59, God sets the other regulation for the dress code for the Muslim women during the prophet's life.

Although the verse is talking to the prophet which means this regulation applies to the time of the prophet, just like the order in 49:2, the description fits the spirit of Islam (Submission in English), and can teach us a great deal.

In this verse, God, DELIBERATELY, said, tell them, to lengthen their garments, and never said how long is long. God could have said tell them to lengthen their garments to their ankles or to their mid-calf or to their knees, but HE DID NOT.
He did not, OUT OF HIS MERCY, not because HE FORGOT as God does not forget. God knows that we will be living in different communities and have different cultures and insists that the minor details of this dress code will be left for the people of every community to hammer for themselves.

It is clear from the above verses that the DRESS CODE for the Muslim women (Submitters) according to the Quran is righteousness and modesty. God knows that this modesty will be understood differently in different communities and that is why He left it open to us to decide for ourselves.

CONCLUSION:

God, the Most Merciful, gave us three basic rules for the Dress Code for Women in Islam (Submission),

(1) The BEST garment is the garment of righteousness.

(2) Whenever you dress , cover your chest (bosoms).

(3) Lengthen your garment.

While these three BASIC rules may not sound enough for those who do not trust God, the TRUE believers know that God is ENOUGH. God could have given us more details to the point of having graphs, designs and color rules, but He , the Most Merciful, wants to give us exactly these very basic rules and leave the rest for us.
After these three basic rules every woman is more aware of her circumstances and can adjust her dress for her situation. Any addition to these basic Quranic rules is an attempt to correct God or improve on His merciful design.

We have no obligation to follow but God's rules, just as His messenger did all the time. Innovations and fabrications that added thousands of rules to the women dress code are nothing but idol-worship and should be refused.
MUSLIM DRESS

Muslim Dress Requirements According to the Qur'an & Sunnah

Muslim Dress Requirements According to the Qur'an & Sunnah

Introduction

To some as a subject the Muslim women's dress and Muslim men's clothing may sound trivial. The shari'ah, however, assigns it moral, social, and legal dimensions.
One basic requirement to be a true believer according to the Qur'an is to make one's opinions, feelings, and inclinations subservient to whatever Allah and his Messenger have decided.

It is not fitting for a believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Apostle, to have any option about their decision: if any one disobeys Allah and His Apostle, he is indeed on a clearly wrong path.
Surat-ul-Ahzab (33-36)

Placing, therefore, one's personal opinions, feelings, or inclinations above or at the same level as the commandments of Allah is the ultimate of human pride and vanity. This means, in effect, that a mortal is responding to Allah's guidance saying: '0 my creator! Your Law is Your Own opinion. I have my own opinion, and I know best what is good for me." This attitude is befitting for unbelievers and hypocrites, but not for a believer no matter how imperfect (all are!) one may be in implementing Islam in one's life.

The exposition of truth in an honest and straight forward way may thus cause some unease even to good and sincere Muslims. If may seem safer and diplomatic to avoid the issue altogether, or to present it in a diluted and vague way. It is even safer and more 'diplomatic' to explicitly or implicitly condone each others' infractions, to help each other find excuses and to rationalise our disobedience to Allah subhanahu wata'ala. This attitude is neither new nor is it without consequences. As the Qur'an presents it:

Curses were pronounced on those among the children of Israel who rejected faith, by the tongue of Dawood (David) and of Esa (Jesus) the son of Mary: because they disobeyed and persisted in excesses.
Nor did they (usually) forbid one another the iniquities which they committed: evil indeed were the deeds which they did.
Surat-ul-Ma'idah (5) 81-82


Requirements Of Women's Dress

The First Requirement: Extent of Covering
The dress must cover the whole body except for the areas specifically exempted.
The Qur'an states:

"Say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty: that will make for greater purity for them: And Allah is well acquainted with all that they do.
And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof; that they should draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands' fathers, their sons, their husbands' sons, their brothers or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, or the slaves whom their right hands possess, or male servants free of physical needs, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex; and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments. And 0 you believers! Turn all toward Allah that you may attain bliss".
Surat-an-Nur (24) 30-31

These 'ayahs contain, among other things, two main injunctions:

A Muslim woman should not display her beauty, and adornment (zeenah) except for "that which must ordinarily appear of it" (ma dhahara minha), or "that which is apparent." The word zeenah lends itself to two related meanings:

Natural or bodily beauty, Acquired adornment such as rings, bracelets, and clothes.
The part of zeenah, exempted from the above injunction, was interpreted in two ways:
The face and the hands.
This is the interpretation of the majority of the jurists, past and present. This interpretation is confirmed by ijma' (consensus) that a Muslim woman is allowed by Islam to uncover her face and hands during pilgrimage and even during the prayers, while the rest of her body is regarded as 'awrah (that which should be covered). This interpretation is based on the authority of Prophet Muhammad (Allah's blessing be upon him), especially the hadith in which he says: ". . . If the woman reaches the age of puberty. No part of her body) should be seen but this - and he pointed to his face and hands."

Whatever appears of the woman's body owing to uncontrollable factors such as the blowing of the wind, or out of necessity such as the bracelets or even the outer clothes themselves.
The headcovers (knumur) should be drawn over the neck slits (joyoob). Khumur is the plural of the Arabic word "khimar" which means a headcover. Juyoob is the plural of the Arabic word "jaiyb" (a derivative of jawb or cutting) refers to the neck slit (of the dress). This means that the headcover should be drawn so as to cover not only the hair, but it could also be drawn over the neck and to be extended so as to cover the bosom.

The Second Requirement: Looseness

The dress must be loose enough so as not to describe the shape of a woman's body. This is consistent with the intent of the 'ayahs cited above (24: 30-31) and is surely a crucial aspect of hiding zeenah. Even moderately-tight clothes which cover the whole body do describe the shape of such attractive parts of the woman's body as the bustline, the waist, the buttocks, the back and the thighs. If these are not part of the natural beauty or zeenah what else is?
Prophet Muhammad pubh once received a thick garment as a gift. He gave it to Osamah b Zayd, who in turn gave it to his wife. When asked by the Prophet why he did not wear it, Osamah indicated that he gave it to his wife. The Prophet then said to Osamah "ask her to use a gholalah under it (the garment) for I fear that it (the garment) may describe the size of her bones."
The word gholalah in Arabic means a thick fabric worn under the dress to prevent it from describing the shape of the body.

A highly desirable way of concealing the shape of the body is to wear a cloak over the garment. The Prophet pubh, however, indicated that if the women's dress meets the Islamic standards it suffices (without a cloak) even for the validity of prayers.

The Third Requirement: Thickness
The dress should be thick enough so as not to show the color of the skin it covers, or the shape of the body which it is supposed to hide.
The purpose of 'ayah (24:31) is to hide the Muslim women's body except ma dhahara minha (the face and hands). It is obvious that this purpose cannot be served if the dress is thin enough so as to reveal the color of the skin or the shape or beauty of the body. This is eloquently explained by Prophet Muhammad pbuh: "In later (generations) of my urnmah there will be women who will be dressed but naked. On top of their heads (what looks) like camel humps. Curse them for they are truly cursed." In another version he added that they "will not enter into paradise or (even) get a smell of it."
At one occasion Asma' (daughter of Abu-Bakr) was visiting her sister 'A'ishah, wife of the Prophet. When he noted that Asma's dress was not thick enough he turned his face away in anger and said, "If the woman reaches the age of puberty, no part of her body should be seen, but this, and he pointed to his face and his hands."

The Fourth Requirement: Overall Appearance
The dress should not be such that it attracts men's attention to the woman's beauty. The Qur'an clearly prescribes the requirements of the woman's dress for the purpose of concealing zeenah (adornment). How could such zeenah be concealed if the dress is designed in a way that it attracts men's eyes to the woman?

This is why the Qur'an addressing the Prophet's wives as the examples for Muslim women says:

"Bedizen not yourselves with the bedizenment of the Time of Ignorance.. ."


Additional Requirements

In addition to the above four main and clearly spelled out requirements, there are other requirements whose specific applications may vary with time and location. These include:
The dress should not be similar to what is known as a male costume. lbn 'Abbas narrated that "The Prophet cursed the men who act like women and the women who act like men.

It should not be similar to what is known as the costume of unbelievers. This requirement is derived from the general rule of Shari'ah that Muslims should have their distinct personality and should differentiate their practices and appearance from unbelievers.
The dress should not be similar to what is known as a male costume. lbn 'Abbas narrated that "The Prophet cursed the men who act like women and the women who act like men.

It should not be a dress of fame, pride and vanity. Such fame may be sought by wearing an excessively fancy dress as a status symbol or an excessively ragged dress to gain others' admiration of one's selflessness. Both motives are improper by Islamic standards. The Prophet pbuh says:"Whoever wears a dress of fame in this world, Allah will clothe him with a dress of humiliation in the day of resurrection, then set it afire."
Tile inscribed with Hadith: "The Prophet said:The intention is the Act. Conferences call for integrity, security for discretion . .."

Requirements Of Muslim Men's Clothing

It should be noted that the basic requirements of the Muslim woman's dress apply as well to the Muslim man's clothing with the difference being mainly in degree. This can best be understood by looking into what Islam defines as 'awrah which refers to the part of the body that should be covered at all times unless there is an expressed exception. The covering of 'awrah is also a condition for the validity of prayers for both men and women.
It has been agreed among jurists on the basis of the Qur'an and Sunnah that 'awrah for the woman is defined as the whole body except for the face and hands. For the man, the 'awrah is defined as the area between the navel and the knees.

Within the definition of 'awrah for men and women, all the four basic requirements discussed in this paper are essentially the same:

1. Man should fully cover his 'awrah.
2. Men's clothes should be loose enough so as not to describe what he is covering (his 'awrah).
3. They should be thick enough so as not to describe the color of the skin or the parts required to be covered.
4. They should not be designed in a way to attract attention. The basic rule of modesty and avoiding "show off" applies to all believers men and women.

The three other additional requirements discussed under the Muslim woman's code of dress apply to men's clothes as well:

1. They should not be similar to what is known as the female dress.
2. They should not be similar to what could be identified as the dress of unbelievers.
3. They should not be clothes of fame, pride, and vanity.
In addition to the above limitations on the Muslim man's clothes, men are not allowed to wear silk and gold. This does not apply to women.

Conclusion

There are surely many other issues pertaining to the subjects that are not covered in this paper Its main focus is on the documented injunctions of Allah (subhanahu wat'ala) as derived from His word (the Qur'an) and as explained by the chosen Messenger, Muhammad (peace be upon him).

These injunctions are to be complied with by all Muslim men and women; and in case of transgression, they will be held accountable in the hereafter. Truly husbands, fathers, and mothers do have an obligation to remind, exhort and help each other achieve the pleasure of Allah and to avoid His wrath. In the final analysis, however, it is not coercion or force which is likely to bring about obedience to Allah.
It is but, the love of Allah, the acceptance of His guidance as the supreme Truth even if contrary to one's personal opinions, that will bring about the change.

Major References

Al-Qur'an, Translation of meanings by A. Yusuf Ali and M. M Pickthal.
Al-Hadith, as cited.
Al-Albani, Muhammad N. Hijabul Mar'at-il-Muslimah Fil-Kttab Wassunah, 3rd Printing, Al-Maktab-ul-lslami, Beirut, Lebanon, 1389 A.H. (1969).
Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf, Al'Halal Walharam Fil-lslam, Maktabat Wahbah, Cairo, 1396 A.H. (1976).
Sabiq, Sayyid, Fiqhus-Sunnah, 2nd Printing, Darul-Kitab-il- Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, 1392 A.H. (1973).

Notes

This paper is based on Muhammad Nasiruddin Al-Albani's Hijabul- Marat-il-Muslimah Fil Kitab Wassunah, 3rd Printing, AI-Maktab-ul-lslami, Beirut, Lebanon 1389 A.H. (1969).Other sources checked include "tafsir" of the Qur'an including those by lbn-Kathir, Yusuf Ali, and Sayyid Qutb; authorities in Fiqh including Sayyid Sabiq's Fiqh-us'sunnah and Yusuf Al-Qaradawi's Al-Halal Walharam Fil-lslam, and a reference on Hadith from Mishkat-uI-Masabeeh.

A distinction should be made between, a) the acceptance of Allah's word as true and supreme in itself while not succeeding to implement it fully in one's life hoping and trying to reach that goal, and b) regarding one's own opinions or other social values and pressures as more valid than Allah's injunctions and trying to find various excuses to justify one's breaking of the law of Allah. It is the latter attitude which is not only blameworthy but akin to unbelief.
Yusuf Ali, op. cit. p. 904.

M. M. Pickthall, The Meaning of the Glorious Koran, p. 25.
According to Lisan-ul-'Arab (Dictionary of Arabic language), the term zeenah includes "all that which beautifies," quoted in (Mrs.) Ne'mat Sidqy, At-Tabarruj, 17th Printing, Dar-ul-l'tisam, Egypt, 1975 pp. 20-21.

The term zeenah is used in the Qur'an to refer to children, wealth, and natural beauty in Allah's creation. See example Qur'an 17:47, 16:8, 37:6 and 3:14.
This is the interpretation of Malik, Ash-Shafi'i, Abu Hanifa and a version of Ahmad b. Hanbal.

See Al-Albani op. cit., pp. 41-42.
Al-Albani provides sample evidence that the covering of the face and hands is not required. Suffice it to say that the woman is allowed to uncover her face and hands during such spiritual acts as the prayers and pilgrimage. See pp. 25-46.

One weakness with this more stringent interpretation is that 'uncontrollable' factors are automatically forgiven without any need for specification. The fact that Qur'an 24:31 exempts from all "zeenah" that which is regarded as "ma dhahara minha" is itself an indication of a concession.

This concession is confirmed by the Hadith (related to Asma' as will be seen in the discussion of the third requirement. See Al-Albani, ibid, pp. 25-46.
According to Al-Albani, this meaning of "khirmar" was explained in such authorities as lbn-ul-Atheer's An-Nihaya and Tafseer-ul-Hafiz lbn-Kathir and others.

Al Albani reports that he knows of no difference on this point. See Al-Albani, ibid, pp. 33-34.
This Hadith appears in Musnad Ahmad, also in Al-Bayhaqi, and is confirmed in other sources of Hadith such as Sunan Abi-Dawood. See Al- Albani, ibid, p. 59-63.
See Sayyid Sabiq's Fiqh-us-Sunnahf, Dar-ul-Kitab-il-'-Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, 1969, vol. 1, p. 127.
At-Tabarabi and Sahih Muslim. See al-Albani, op. cit., p. 56.

At another occasion when the Prophet pbuh saw a bride in a thin dress he said, "she is not a woman who believes in Surat-un-Noor who wears this." Surat-un-Noor is the Surah where the main requirements of the Muslim woman's dress are outlined. Still on another occasion some women from the tribe of Bani Tameem came to visit 'A'ishah in thin clothes. Upon seeing them, the Prophet pbuh said, "lf you are believers, then these are not believers' clothing." See Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, op- cit., p. 160.

The term used in the Qur'an is tabarruj which means displaying of beauty. Another derivative of tabarruj is burooj which is used in the Qur'an (e.g. 4:77, 15:16, 25:61, 85:1). Burooj means tower because of their clear visibility. Clear "Visibility" of the woman may result from the type of dress, the way she walks, or the way she behaves.

According to Al-Albani, a further requirement is that the dress should not be perfumed. In fact, this requirement extends beyond dress. There are several ahadeeth which make it clearly forbidden for a Muslim woman to wear perfumes when she goes out of her home even if she is going to the mosque. See Al-Albani, op. cit., pp. 64-66.

Al-Bukhari, Abu-Dawood, Ahmad, Ad-darimi. For this and other ahadeeth on the same subject see Al-Albani, ibid, pp. 66-69.
For an excellent discussion of this principle on the basis of Qur'an and Sunnah, see Al-Albani, ibid, pp. 78-109.

For this and other versions of the hadeeth see Al-Albani, ibid, pp. 110- 111.
Difference exists, however, among jurists whether the knees and the thighs should be included in the definition of the man's 'awrah. For a good discussion on the evidence related to both views, see Sayyid Sabiq's Fiqh-us- Sunnah, op. cit., vol. 1, pp. 125-127.

For Muslim men and women, - For believing men and women, For true men and women, For men and women who arePatient and constant, for men And women who humble themselves, For men and women who give In charity, for men and women Who fast (and deny themselves), For men and women who Guard their chastity, and For men and women who Engage much in God's praise,- For them has God prepared Forgiveness and great reward.

Qur'an, Al-Ahzab 33:35

Muslim Dress